Whether in search of a better future or for reasons of force majeure, migrants have existed since the beginning of humanity. Migration is an important driver of sustainable development, bringing benefits not only to the migrant, but also to the community to which he or she is arriving, or of which he or she is a part. In order to do this, it is necessary to understand what motivates this flow of people. While it is true that in some cases the cause is purely economic, it should be noted that many people do not have the option of staying in their country of origin, but are forced to leave their territory for religious, political or social reasons, linked to persecution that endangers their life, safety or freedom.
Taking into account the above, it is evident that there is a need for migration governance based on safe, orderly and regulated migration, so that people who leave their country of origin are not subjected to any type of violence, or placed in any situation of vulnerability, which in itself, their own migratory status grants them. In order to understand the terms correctly, it is necessary to define orderly, regulated and safe migration. Orderly migration is understood as the movement of people that respects the laws and regulations governing departure from the country of origin, as well as travel, transit and entry into the country of destination; on the other hand, regular migration is the movement across an international border, authorized for entry or stay, that is, movement through recognized channels; while safe migration refers to a variable concept, linked to the welfare of migrants, who could fall into a situation of vulnerability at any time during the migration process.
With favorable migration policies, migration offers a wealth of benefits for inclusive growth and sustainable development, as migrants promote trade and investment, as well as bring skills, innovations and knowledge to the countries involved. However, if governments do not consider the basic needs of migrants, it overburdens communities, compromises development benefits, and puts migrants at risk. Therefore, in order for migrants to develop their full potential, it is vital to address issues of health, education, labor and basic services.
In this regard, it is the duty of the international community to protect the rights of migrants and ensure respect for their fundamental freedoms. For this reason, the United Nations General Assembly, through Resolution 55/93 of 2000, proclaimed December 18 as International Migrants Day, after noting the large flow of people that existed, and still persists.
In this regard, according to current estimates, in 2020 there were approximately 281 million international migrants in the world, a figure equivalent to 3.6% of the world population, which undoubtedly demonstrates the great relevance of the migrant population in our societies. To this end, the United Nations General Assembly, adopted in 2018, through Resolution 73/195, the Global Compact for Safe, Orderly and Regular Migration, which proposes a framework for cooperation in order to address all dimensions of migration, based on the 2030 Agenda for Sustainable Development, thus manifesting the importance of migrants for development and growth at both local, regional, national and international levels.